GLOSSARY

B
in+gata (red patterns): multi-colored textiles dyed with stencils against a red or yellow ground; originated in the Ryukyu Island (principally Okinawa), where is was reserved for the nobility; designs typically organized in parallel registers; pastels traditionally favored [BtTB, Stinchecum, pg.82-85]

Chirimen: crepe textured weave; created by increasing the tension of the weft threads (over those of the warp); produces a fine drape to the fabric, which is much favored by women [trad.]

chuya+obi (night+day): obi with contrasting patterns on each face [trad.]

Dai+myo (great name): colloquial term for a clan leader; technically, one who held an estate producing 10,000+ koku (50,000 bushels of rice) per annum and was directly subject to the Shogun at the time of Tokugawa Ieyasu's death [HoJ,v.3,pg.___].

donsu: damask weave with isolated motifs on a satin ground; particularly in emulation of Ming dynstasy styles [trad.]

Eboshi: style of peaked cap worn by the bushi class; usually made of braided, and lacquered fiber or horesehair [trad.]

Edo+ko+mon: variety of small-figured, densely repeated, textile pattern, created by means of resist stenciling; characteristic style from Edo; often favored by the samurai class for formal wear [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

Fukuro+obi (bag sash): obi woven as an unseamed tube with a single pattern; exterior decoration may cover only 2/3rds of length; reverse usually blank [trad.]

furi+sode (swinging sleeve): formal ko+sode worn by young, unmarried women; characterized by sleeves with wide cuffs (sometimes exceeding two feet); usually, completely decorated with floral motifs[JCaTA,pg.13]
Furisodoe is the most formal kimono for unmarried women. The characteristics of furisode is its long flowing sleeves. Among all kimono, it has most decorative patterns using intricate embroidering or elaborate work of hand paintings. Kimono wearers are decreasing, but many women wear furisode and attend the Coming-of-Age Day ceremony when they have turned 20.

Habutae: firm textured, plain weave silk; resembles taffeta; first produced at Nishijin (Kyoto) from the Momoyama period onward [AoJ,v.1,pg.137]

hakama: since the Heian period __ pleated, loose, overtrouser, put on after the kosode; now, largely reduced to just a pleated skirt without interior division; largely used in men's formal dress <Attr.>

hakata+obi: single layered, tightly woven obi; characterized by thick weft threads and stiff, tight weave; originated in Hakata [trad.]

Haori : a lightweight coat worn over kimono. It was used as a jacket or to prevent the kimono from becoming soiled and wet. It isn't meant to close in front, so you can just put on as a jacket. Men's black haori can be worn just as a blazer for woman. It matches perfectly with black pants or skirt.
For men, it is regarded as an essential kimono attire along with the hakama, the long pleated loose-fitting trousers. Black haori and hakama make the most formal ceremonial ensemble. Men's haori often have unique pictures, woven, painted or printed on their linings. The mtotifs have a great variety, from the Noh play to animals. You can even find the pictures with a militaristic tone. Both men's and women's haori can be worn as a jacket or blazer and also men's haori can be excellent for wall hanging with the inside out.
The black haori made of silk or crepe and bearing a single family crest at the back mid seam is called the kuro montsuki haori. It is worn for ceremonies.

happi: half-length, open-front coat, with full-length collar; typically, sleeves are close-fitting [trad.]

heko+obi: sash of loosely woven fabric; usually three meters in length for adults; often decorated with shibori designs; can be worn by both genders in casual settings, but most often my males and children with yukata [trad.]

homon+gi: `Homon' means `to visit' and `gi' is a `wear'. It's a formal wear both married and unmarried women. It can be worn at the parties or when calling on somebody. It's characterized by colorful designs running continuously over the seams. The length of the sleeves varies, unmarried women wear with longer sleeves. Homongi is usually worn with the double-folded(fukuro) obi with matching obi-age(bustle sash) and obi-jime(a tieng cord).

Ichimatsu: checkerboard pattern; largely popularized in the Edo period (1741) by Sanogawa Ichimatsu, an Osaka actor [JCaTA,pg.40]

irotomesode: a formal kimono same as kurotomesode but the base is not black but beautiful light colors. It's the second most formal kimono for married women. It also has five family crests and have more festive air and worn at formal parties or gatherings.

jimbaori: open-front vest with turned back lapels and tail break in back seam; usually made from luxury frabrics; sometimes with epaulets; usually worn over armor; design orignated in 16th century [trad.]

Jo+fu: superior grade of plain-weave hemp [Cannabis sativa]or linen cloth; especially favored for summer wear by the samurai class; see katabira; later applied to summer weight fabrics that have have a similar texture (even silk) [BtTB, Nagasaki, pg.17]

juni+hitoe (12 unlined): colloquially, the term applied to a 12 layered form of dress for court women, which originated in the Heian period; actual number of layers varied with time; sometimes as many as 15 or as few as nine; [JCaTA,pg.14]
juban: under garment; typically follows the shape and proportion of the outer garment; never worn alone in public; comes in knee- and full lengths [trad.]

Kanoko (fawn): tie-dye technique; named for its' resemblance to the spotting on a fawn's coat [trad.]

kasuri: technique for creating patterns in fabric by selectively dying warp and/or weft threads before weaving them together; pattern edges are often blurred due to inexact registration of the threads; geometric figures in white and indigo are most common; also applied to fabrics that employ this technique; see also e+gasuri [AoJ,v.1,pg138]; [BtTB, Dusenbury, pg.57-74]

Known as a Japanese ikat, kasuri is one of the popular designs of kimono. The basic Kasuri patterns are cross and paralle cross designs. There are more complex kasuri known as the pictorial kasuri, where various Japanese disign such as pines, bamboo, plum blossoms, cranes, tortoises.
Kasuri weaving begins by pre-dyeing of thread. Bundles of thread are wrapped with cotton thread, so that certain sections of the bundles are dyed and others are not. The part of the reserved area get irregular bleeding naturall and this causes interestingy effect on Kasuri weaving. Once the thread is dyed and set, the bundles are untied.
Notable examples of these are made in Fukuoka Prefecture, Kurume-gasuri; Ehime Prefecture, Iyo-gasuri; and Okinawa Prefecture, Ryukyu-gasuri.

kata+zome (stencil dying): dye technique; starch resist process applied with paper stencils; regular repeats are characteristic; one stencil per color required [BtTB, Mellott, pg.52,53]

kin+ran: twill silk fabric; decorative motifs are woven in gold thread; introduced to Japan during Ming dynasty [JCaTA,pg.143,44]

kinsha: fine grade of chirimen [trad.]

Kurotomesode: a most formal kimono for married women. It is black and has five family crests in white and usually has gorgeous and coloful patternes floating on the bottom. The silk white collar undergarment is worn under kurotomesode and makes the beautiful neckline with the contrast of white and black. It is worn when attending the relative members weddings.

Mame+shibori: style of tie dying; said to resemble bean (mame) shape but split by a resisted line [trad.]

maru+obi: obi made from double-wide fabric, which is creased down the center, and hemmed at the selvages; always fully patterned; usually decorated in small, repeated motifs; often in multiple colors; typically the most formal obi worn by women [trad.]
meisen: plain weave fabric made from broken cocoon filaments and silk thread; commonly used for everyday wear [trad.]

meisen : The "meisen" style silk kimono was the most popular garment at the beginning of the Showa era. It is very different from fancy Furisode or other formal kimono, but this is one of the kimono which people wore everyday at home. The people over 60 years old feel so nostalgic seeing this kimono. The principal characteristic of meisen is its interesting surface decoration made by pre-dyed threads. As the fabric is woven the surface decoration appears as a shimmering, soft-edged pattern. The technique is related to earlier methods kasuri (ikat), in which threads are resisted before dyeing and weaving, and e-gasuri ("picture-ikat"), a Japanese innovation in which threads are resisted, rather than direct-dyed, with the use of a stencil.
Because of the events such as World War I and the Kanto earthquake( 1923 ) there was an intensified demand for silk garments, and as the result, by the beginning of the Showa period, the production and popularity of meisen kimono was at its height. Meisen kimono were affordable, durable, smart attire for everyday wear loved by everyone.

michiyuki: Michiyuki is very similer to haori jacket, except the square color in the front. The length is usually a half-length or three-quarter length.

miyamairi: About thirty days after a child is born, it is taken to a Shintoshrine for its first shrine visit, called `miyamairi'. Mother or a grandmother holds the baby and covers him up with this kimono and ties the cord around her neck. So the baby doesn't really `wear' the kimono as you can see in the picture.
The prayer is offered to wish their growth and bright future. The grandparents and relatives come to congratulate them and tucks some gift money between that tieng cord and kimono. It is the most proud moment for the parents!
The boys kimono usually has more gold and the symbols of congratulations such as pine trees, a hawk and big hammer which is supposed to produce good things are used.
A bay girl's kimono has flowery pattern with bivrant colors.
Boy' s kimono somehow look more decorative. It may be beacuse they consider a boy as an inheritor of the family.

mofuku: a mourning wear with black silk fabric with no patterns. It has five mon(family crests) and the obi to go with mofuku should be black and so are the foot wear.

mon (Crests): a family crest handed down through the generations. Most mon designs are based either on flowers or geometrical designs. However, a few are based on the animals of the zodiac, birds, or butterflies. Many of the popular mon are derived from ones once used by the aristocracy, particularly those used by members of the royal family. Most of the black formal haori, kimono or children's celemonial kimono has those crests in white.

Nishiki: compound weaves with decorative warp and weft threads; usually on plain or twill ground; also indicates any highly coloful pattern; colloquially known as "brocade" [trad.]

Nishi+jin (West camp): Kyoto district famed for its' textile production; established in the Kamakura period to encourage the development of weaving and sericulture in Japan [trad.]

No-: form of theatrical performance; developed and patronized by the military class in the Kamakura period; an out-growth of court Bugaku and Gagaku traditions [JCaTA,pg.53, 54]

noshi: bundle of abalone strips or paper used as an ornament for auspicious occasions; a decorative motif that represents same [AoJ,v.1,pg.139]

Obi-jime: Obi-jime is a cord tied at the front of the obi. It makes a beutiful accent both for obi and kimono. The cords are either braided or sewn, some are round and others are flat and usually have tassels at the bothe ends. The materials are silk, satin or gold brocade. Not only for wearing kimono, obi-jime can also be used to tie obi when they are used as a table runner or wall hanging.

omeshi tightly woven plain weave; made with hand-twisted, dyed thread with a firm texture [trad.]

O-shima+tsumugi: variety of silk fabric made with hand twisted threads from Amami Island (Kagoshima); often dyed in kasuri technique with local earths; said to be long-wearing [trad.]

Rinzu: damask woven silk with repeated designs [trad.]

ro: gauze weave characterized by regularly spaced rows of either paired warp or weft threads that are braided over center thread; compression of threads creates openings in the plain weave; number of plain runs between openings can vary with degree of stiffness desired [trad.]
Ro is an extremely light weight thin kimono worn during July and August. It is made of sheer silk which looks striped. Sha is also the representative of sheer summer kimono which looks just like ro, but the weaving is not stripe.

roketsu+zome: technique of hand-applied wax-resist dying; characterized by small, broken lines where resist has cracked and allowed dye to seep in; known in Nara period [trad.]

Saki+ori: typically, fabric with asa or cotton warps and wefts of cotton cloth strips [BtTB, Nagasaki, pg.17]

sashiko: traditional form of quilting technique used to improve the warmth and durability of garments; employs thick cotton thread in lines of running stiches;originally used to patch and extend the life of clothing; later used a piori to decorate as well as improve fabric by this means (especially firemen's protective clothing); regional varieties abound; [BtTb, Shaver, pg.45]

sei+gai+ha: abstract pattern formed by concentric arcs arranged in offset rows like fish scales; arcs always oriented above points in contrast to actual scales [trad.]

sha: stiff gauze weave with figured patterns; braiding of threads occurs in warp and weft directions; figures are created by changing to twill weave were design requires [trad.]

Shibori (Tie-Dye): a type of resist dyeing in which certain areas on the cloth are reserved from dyeing by binding dots, stiching, or clamping and squeezing the cloth between boards. Different from other dyeing techniques, shibori creates a raised and wrinkled surface on the finished work.
Shibori may be machine-made or hand-made. The latter demands a high price becauce it is such an elaborate and intricate work. The most well-known example is the polka dot pattern called kanokoshibori . It is literally `fawnspots" because it looks like the spots on fawn's back. Each dot has to be tied tightly with thread.
Today the exacting work of shibori dyeing is carried out in the Arimatsu Narumi area of Aichi Prefecture and in part of Kyoto Prefecture.

Shichi-go-san: Shichi-go-san is seven-five-three in Japanese.
It is a gala day for children of three, five and seven years of age. On Novembr 15, parents take their childeren to Shintoshirine to offer the prayer for children's growth. The ages of three and five for boys and three and seven for girls are celebrated. on that day, the children are dressed up in a gala kimono or fancy clothes to go to the shirines. There, they are given thousand year candy, which is long and thin in the paper bags with the pictures of crane and turtles. Cranes and turtles are the symbols of longevity.

Tome+sode: formal ko+sode for married women; typically decorated with yuzen-dyed motifs against black ground; other colors possible; decorative composition varies over time [trad.]

tsujigahana (crossed flowers): decorative style that combines tie-dying and painting techniques; employs stitched borders to reserve areas for decoration; often suplemented by painted flowers; first popularized in Momoyama period; dyed edges often soft and blurred; [JCaTA,pg.145,48]

tsukesage: informal, woman's ko+sode; characterized by decoration composed in vertical masses at both front and back hems [trad.]
Tsukesage is worn at either formal or informal occasions and refers to the way in which the patterns are dyed.The patterns of hemline go upward and meet at the top of the shoulders and the patterns on the sleeves also are the same. As a formal wear, it should have a crest on the back.

tsumugi: plain weave fabric; characterized by hand twisted silk filaments made from hatched cocoons; often results in uneven thickness of yarns; produces a pleasant irregular look suitable for casual wear despite its' labor intensive technique; regional varieties exist; see O-shima+tsumugi [trad.]

tsuzumi: hand-held drum; usually played by striking with the free hand; sometimes used as textile motif in conjunction with other instruments, but other combinations are common [trad.]

tsuzure+ori:a form of tapestry weave in which the design threads are floated across the back of the fabric; often used for No' costumes [trad.]

Uchikake: over kimono for indoor wear; left unbelted with trailing hem; currently favored for wedding attire; often with padded hem, athough not required [trad.]

uchiwa: round-faced fan: has fixed frame sandwiched between paper layers; often used as decorative motif in its' own right [AoJ,v.1,pg139]

Yo+gi: oversized, padded kimono-form comforter; developed for cold weather sleeping; often elaborately decorated in tsu+tsu+gaki technique when it formed part of a brides trousseau [trad.]

yukata: very casual ko+sode; typically made of cotton or other vegetable fiber; usually dyed with indigo in kata+zome technique; traditionally worn after a bath; nowdays, more commonly worn at o-bon festivals in rural areas [trad.]

Yukata is a summer Kimono, made with cotton with no lining. Yukata is still loved and worn, especially when you stay at Japanese hot spring resort or hotels. It is roomy and cool relaxing wear. At summer festivals, people enjoy bon-dance or fireworks in yukata and a fan in the hand.
The most traditional designs are simple navy blue patterns on white base or white patterns on navy blue base. Young people enjoy yukata with both traditional designs and modern designs by young designers.

Yuzen: one of the most famous kind of dyeing technique of Kimono. The characteristics of "yuzen" are its hand paintings and picturesque patterns. The sublime beauty of Yuzen still catches the heart of everyone.
There are two main techniques of Yuzen: "tegaki-yuzen" (hand painted) and "kata-yuzen" (printed). Yuzen dyeing techniques use paste as the resist for dyeing the pattern. After the pattern is first sketched on the cloth using a juice squeezed from spiderworts, the paste is applied over this. Then, colors are added to the pattern according to the dye and pigment. Next, the completed pattern is covered with paste and the dye is added by a brush. After the colors are fixed, the paste is removed by waving the cloth in the running water. The beautiful patterns remain perfectly on the cloth. At the Kamo River in Kyoto every year in August, you can see many Yuzen artisans washing the rolls of the painted cloth in the running water. It is a beautiful scenery of Kyoto in August. Some of the various styles of "yuzen" were also developed in different regions:
"Kaga-yuzen" (Kaga . Kanazawa) "Kyo-yuzen" (Kyoto) "Tokamachi-yuzen" (Tokamachi . Niigata) "Nagoya-yuzen" (Nagoya)


Re: LEXICON: Bibliography & References
" Reply #21 on: Feb 16th, 2002, 1:59pm "

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AoJ,v.1 / Arts of Japan, vol.1: Design Motifs / author:Saburo Mizoguchi / translation:Allison Cort / published:Weatherhill, 1973 (1st ed.)

BtTB / Beyond the Tanabata Bridge:Traditional Japanese Textiles / Editor:William Jay Ratbun [Various articles by various authors] / published:Thames & Hudson, 1991 (2nd printing)

HoJ,v.1 / History of Japan to 1334,vol.1 / author:George Sansom / published:Stanford University Press, 1978 printing

HoJ,v.2 / History of Japan 1334-1615, vol.2 / auhtor:George Sansom / published:Stanford University Press, 1978 printing

HoJ,v.3 / History of Japan 1615-1867, vol.3 / author:George Sansom / published:Stanford University Press, 1978 printing

JCaTA / Japanese Costume and Textile Arts / author:Seiroku Noma / translator:Armis Nikovskis / published:Weatherhill/Heibonsha, 1974 (1st English ed.)

JGA: Japan's Golden Age: Momoyama / editor:Money L. Hickam / Yale University Press, 1996

K:FC / Kimono:Fashioning Culture / author:Liza Crihfield Dalby / published:University of Washington Press / 2001 (1st paperback ed.)

Y+IW / Yuka and Ichiro Wada [our hosts]

<Attr.> / No firm attribution is possible, however the information seems credible (my judgement). Also, the source is generally reliable (also my judgement). No responsibilty for accuracy is incured, however, information should be subject to further proof and subsequent revision.


Ichiroya